If we ask a Jew or Christian to show us the miracles of Prophet Musa (Moses) or 'Eesa (Jesus), may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon them, they both would submit that it is not within human power to re-demonstrate any of those miracles now. Moses canecannot be created nor can Prophet Jesus be invoked to raise people from the dead. For us today, these miracles are nothing more than historical reports. But if a Muslim is asked about the greatest miracle of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), he can readily show his book, the Qur'aan. For the Qur'aan is a miracle that remains in our hands. It is an open book for all people to examine its contents.
Allah said in the Qur'aan:
We present Professor Emeritus Keith Moore, one of the worlds prominent scientists of anatomy and embryology. We asked Professor Moore to give us his scientific analysis of some specific Qur'aanic verses and prophetic traditions [Ahadeeth] pertaining to his field of specialization.
Professor Moore is the author of the book entitled The Developing Human. He is Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Toronto, Canada, where he was Associate Dean of Basic Sciences at the Faculty of Medicine and for 8 years was the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy. Dr. Moore had also previously served at the University of Winnipeg, Canada for eleven years. He has headed many international associations of anatomists and the Council of the Union of Biological Sciences. Professor Moore was also elected to the membership of the Royal Medical Association of Canada, the International Academy of Cytology, the Union of American Anatomists and the Union of North and South American Anatomists. and in 1984 he received the most distinguished award presented in the field of anatomy in Canada, the J.C.B. Grant Award from the Canadian Association of Anatomists.
He has published many books on clinical anatomy and embryology, eight of them are used as reference works in medical schools and have been translated into six languages.
When we asked Professor Moore to give us his analysis of the Qur'aanic verses and prophetic statements, he was amazed. He wondered how the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), fourteen centuries ago, could describe the embryo and its development phase in such detail and accuracy, which scientists have come to know only in the last thirty years. Very quickly, however, Professor Moores amazement grew into admiration for this revelation and guidance. He introduced these views to intellectual and scientific circles. He even gave a lecture on the compatibility of modern embryology with the Qur'aan and Sunnah where he stated:
It has been a great pleasure for me to help clarify statements in the Qur'aan about human development. It is clear to me that these statements must have come to Muhammad fromAllah, or God, because almost all of this knowledge was not discovered until many centuries later. This proves to me that Muhammad must have been a Messenger of Allah."
Consider what this well-known and respected scientist of embryology declared upon studying the Qur'aanic verse related to his discipline, and his conclusion that Muhammad(peace be upon him), must have been a Messenger from Allah.
In comparing the fresh-water leech to the embryo at the alaqah stage, Professor Moorefound a great similarity between the two. He concluded that the embryo during the alaqah stage acquires an appearance very similar to that of leech. Professor Moore placed a picture of the embryo side by side with the picture of a leech (See Fig. 3.1). He presented these pictures to scientists at several conferences.
How could Muhammad (peace be upon him) have possibly known that by himself? Professor Moore also studied the embryo at the mudghah (chewed-like substance) stage. He took a piece of raw clay and chewed it in his mouth, then compared it with a picture of the embryo at the mudghah stage. Professor Moore concluded that the embryo at the mudghah stage acquires the exact appearance of a chewed-like substance (Fig. 3.2) . Several Canadian periodicals published many of Professor Moores statements. In addition, he presented three television programs in which he highlighted the compatibility of modern science with what has been contained in the Qur'aan for one thousand and four hundred years. Consequently, Professor Moore was asked the following question: Does this mean that you believe that the Qur'aan is the Word of Allah? to which he replied: I find no difficulty in accepting this. Professor Moore was also asked: How can you believe in Muhammad while you believe in Jesus Christ? His reply was: "I believe they both come from the same school."
It also follows that modern-day scientists should have no difficulty in acknowledging that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), is a Messenger of Allah.
Professor Moore was convinced by our evidence, so we asked him the following question: You mentioned in your book that in the Middle ages there was no advancement in the science of embryology, and that only very little was known at that time. At the same time the Qur'aan was being revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), and he was guiding people according to what Allah revealed to him. There is found in the Qur'aan a very detailed description of the creation of man and of the different stages of human development.
You are a world renowned scientist, so why do you not uphold justice and mention these truths in your book? He replied: You have the evidence and not I. So why do you not present it to us?
We provided him with the facts and Professor Moore proved to be a great scholar. In the third edition of his book he did make some additions. This book has been translated, as we mentioned previously, into eight languages including Russian, Chinese, Japanese, German, Italian, Portuguese and Yugoslavian. This book enjoys worldwide distribution and is read by many of the worlds foremost scientists.
Professor Moore states in his book about the Middle ages that: "Growth of science was slow during the medieval period, and few high points of embryological investigation undertaken during this age are known to us. It is cited in the Qur'aan, the Holy Book of the Muslims, that human beings are produced from a mixture of secretions from the male and the female. Several references are made to the creation of a human being from a sperm drop, and it is also suggested that the resulting organism settles in the woman like a seed, six days after its beginning (The human blastocyst begins to implant about six days after fertilization. See Figure 4.1)."
"The developing embryo was considered to be human at 40 to 42 days and no longer resemble an animal embryo at this stage. (See Fig. 4.3) (The human embryo begins to acquire human characteristics at this stage). The Qur'aan also states that the embryo develops with - three veils of darkness. This probably refers to (1) the maternal anterior abdominal wall, (2) the uterine wall, and (3) the amniochorionic membrane. (see Fig. 4.4) Space does not permit discussion of several other interesting references to human prenatal development that appear in the Qur'aan."
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The Qur'aan identifies the stages of pre-natal development as follows:
- Nutfah, which means a drop or small amount of water;
- alaqah,which means a leech-like structure;
- mudghah, which means a chewed-like structure;
- idhaam, which means bones or skeleton;
- kisaa ul idham bil-laham, which means the clothing of bones with flesh or muscle,
- al-nash'a which means the formation of distinct fetus.
In one of the conferences he attended, Professor Moore stated the following: "The embryo develops in the mothers womb or uterus protected by three veils, or layers, as shown in this next slide [exact slide not shown - Ed.]. (A) represents the anterior abdominal wall, (B) the uterine wall, and the (C) the amniochorionic membrane. (see Figure 4.5) Because the staging of human embryo is complex, owing to the continuous process of change during development, it is proposed that a new system of classification could be developed using the terms mentioned in the Qur'aan and Sunnah. The proposed system is simple, comprehensive, and conforms with present embryological knowledge."
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We told Dr. Moore, What you have said is true, but it is far less than the truth and evidence we have presented to you from the Qur'aan and the Sunnah and which are related to the science of embryology. So why not do justice and completely bring to light all the Qur'aanic verses and Ahadeeth which deal with your field of specialization?.
Professor Moore said that he has inserted the appropriate references at the appropriate places in a specialized scientific book. However, he would invite us to make some Islamic additions, citing all the relevant Qur'aanic verses and the prophetic Ahadeeth, and highlighting their various miraculous aspects, to be incorporated at appropriate places in the book. This was done, and consequently, Professor Moore wrote an introduction to these Islamic additions and the result was this one which you see here before you. On each page that includes facts about the science of embryology, we have cited the Qur'aanic verses and Prophetic Ahadeeth which prove the inimitability of the Qur'aan and Sunnah. What we are witnessing today is Islam moving to new grounds within fair and unbiased human minds.
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We know that these stages were not known until the middle of the nineteenth century and were not proven until the beginning of the twentieth century. After a long discussion, Professor Goeringer concurred that there was no mention of these phases. Thus we asked him if there was any specific terminology applied to these phases similar to that found in theQuraan. His reply was negative. We asked him: What is your opinion on these terms which the Quraan uses to describe the phases which the fetus goes through? After long discussions, he presented a study at the 8th Saudi Medical Conference. He mentioned in the study man's basic ignorance of these phases. He also discussed the comprehensiveness and precision of these Quraanic terms in describing the development of the fetus by means of concise and comprehensive terms which convey far reaching truth. Let us listen to Professor Goeringer as he explains his opinion:
"In a relatively few aayahs (Quraanic verses), is contained a rather comprehensive description of human development from the time of the commingling of the gametes throughorganogenesis. No such distinct and complete record of human development such as classification, terminology, and description existed previously. In most, if not all, instances, this description antedates by many centuries the recording of the various stages of human embryonic and fetal development recorded in the traditional scientific literature."
The discussion with Professor Goeringer led us to talk about a fact which was discovered recently and which would eliminate any controversy. Although the virgin birth of Christ has been a Christian belief for centuries, some among the Christians insist that Christ must have had a father, as a virgin birth is scientifically impossible. They argue this, and perhaps they do not know, that there could be a creation without a father. The Quraan replied to them and has used as an example the creation of Adam. Allah said: The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him: Be: And he was. (Quraan 3:59).
There are three types of creation:
- Adam, who was created without a mother or father
- Eve, who was created without a mother
- Jesus Christ, who was created without a father
Let us read the words of Professor Goeringer: "In another type of approach, unfertilized eggs of many species of amphibians and lower mammals can be activated by mechanical (such as pricking with a needle), physical (such as thermal shock), or chemical means by any of a number of different chemical substances, and continue to advance to stages of development. In some species, this type of parthenogenetic development is natural."
Allah has given us the definitive answer and he used Adam, whom they believe in, as an example of a human being who has no father or mother. The Christians regard as deviance the fact that a human being can be born without a father. Thus, Allah has shown them an analogy of a human being who had no father and no mother, that is, Adam. The Quraansays: The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him: Be: and he was. (Quraan 3:59).
Allah has willed that there be such scientific advancements and discoveries which provide proof after proof of the truth which has been revealed in the Quraan. It is in this way that the verses of this glorious book were revealed with the passage of time. The verses become known to the foremost scholars and scientists of our religion and of generations to come. Science will never deplete the wonders of the Quraan.
When we met together with the committee,Professor Johnson asked us what our committee was doing. We told him that the subject of our study was the relationship between what the Qur'aan and Sunnah contained 1400 years ago and what modern scientists tell us. He asked: "Like what?" We said: For example, modern science tells us that the human prenatal development goes through several stages whereas the Qur'aan mentioned these stages to us 1400 years ago.
Professor Johnson was appalled when he heard this. He expressed his feeling by simply saying: No no, no! What kind of talk is that?
We understood the effect of such statements upon him. We knew he was one of the foremost scientists in the United States. He knew, of course, that after the discovery of the microscope in the 16th century, physicians throughout the 17th century believed that a human beings origin began entirely in the males semen, specifically in the males sperm. This picture (not shown) was the evidence used by scientists in the 17th century, and partly in the 18th century, to support their belief that the human being was created wholly from the male sperm, but after the discovery of the ovum was larger than the sperm of the male. In this way they ignored the role of the man in the 18th century, just as they had ignored that of the woman in the 17th century.
It was not until the middle of the 19th century when the scientists began to discover that the human embryonic development took place in several successive stages. It was for this reason when Professor Johnson was told that this information has been in the Qur'aan for 1400 years that he stood up and shouted: No, No! So we in turn handed him a copy of the Qur'aan and showed him the following verse which he read in the English translation:
So we collected more than 25 texts and presented them to him. Then we asked him: Is it possible that these texts are coincidence? Moreover, the Glorious Qur'aan has given each of these stages a name: the first being the nutfah, or the drop of water, the second being the alaqah, a leech-like substance, the third being the mudghah, or a chewed-like lump, the fourth being bones, and then the clothing of the bones with flesh. Can all this be a coincidence? He flatly said: "No."
Then we asked him: Then what remains? He said: "The other possibility is that Muhammad had hold [of a] powerful microscope."
We said: "You know that this sort of minute and specialized knowledge, which has been contained in the Qur'aan, can only be obtained by very powerful microscopes. And anyone possessing such powerful microscopes must also possess very high technology, which must be reflected in his daily living, his house, his food, his control and management of war and quest for peaceetc. And you know that technological advancement is a process of cumulative inheritance, passed in and proved upon from one generation to the other."
The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), never had possession of scientific equipment or microscopes. The only thing that remains for us to say that he was a Messenger from Allah. After this, Professor Johnson began to take interest in the study of scientific signs in the Qur'aan, concentrating in some of his research on the stages of embryonic development. While Dr. Moore and others discussed the external fetal appearance, Professor Johnson concentrated his presentation on the Qur'aans detailed descriptions of the internal as well as external of the fetus.
For example, this drawing of the mudghah [Fig. 6.3], or the chewed-like structure, is one of the things that Professor Johnson used as evidence.
If we were to make an incision in the embryo and dissect the internal organs, we would find that most of them are already formed, as it is apparent here. You can also see from this picture that some of the cells have already formed, while others are not yet completely formed.
How then would we describe this embryo? What do we say? Could we say it is the complete creation? Then we are describing the part which is already created, and if we say it is an incomplete creation, then we are describing the part which is not yet created, the question would be: Is it a complete creation or is it an incomplete creation? There is no better description of that stage of embryologenesis than the Qur'aanic description which says: mudghah (chewed-like structure) partly formed and partly unformed (Qur'aan 22:5).
Allah, may He be Exalted and Glorified, said in the Quraan: