Islam in general refers to the religion which God Almighty sent His Prophets to teach mankind: The worship of the One God alone (pure Monotheism) while submitting to God's will in gratitude for being given life and innumerable blessings.
God Almighty revealed: Remember when your Lord said to the angels: ‘Truly, I am going to place someone on earth to rule over it.’ They said: ‘Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, while we glorify You with praises and thanks (exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners) and sanctify You.’ God said: ‘I know that which you do not know.’And God taught Adam the names for everything, then He showed them to the angels and God said: “Now Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful.” They (angels) said: “Glory be to You, we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Verily, it is You, the All-Knower, the All-Wise.”
He said: “O Adam! Inform them of their names,” and when he had informed them of their names, He said: “Did I not tell you that I know the unseen in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been hiding?”Remember when We said to the angels (and Jinn): “Prostrate yourself before Adam” They prostrated except Iblis, he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to God).” We said: “O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and both of you freely with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be in the wrong.”
Then the Satan plotted against them both and caused them both fall from the Paradise, and got them out from that in which they were. We said: “Get you down all with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.” (Qur’an 2: 30-36)
If you will notice the Qur’an blames Adam and Eve equally. There is no belief in Islam that Eve is the evil one and that is because of her being a woman and that her menstrual cycle and child bearing are burdens for her evil and that all women will inherit this because of her evil. This is an attack on woman or at least oppression that God refutes in theses verse and the Prophet (pbuh) never endorsed this ridiculous idea.
“Then Adam received Words from his Lord. His Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the most Merciful.”(Qur’an 2: 37)God Almighty here is bringing the truth clearly about His nature of Mercy and Forgiveness. Secondly he is negating any belief that people are born with the sins of their fathers. Even the bible refutes this belief of Original sin. “The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son” Ezek.18:20
We said: “Get down all of you from this place (the Paradise), then whenever there comes to you Guidance from Me, and whoever follows My Guidance there shall be no fear on them, nor shall they grieve. But those who disbelieve in our verses and Prophets, such are the dwellers of the Fire, they shall abide therein forever.” (Qur’an 2:38-39).
Almighty God also revealed:
“And surely, We created you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human being), then We told the angels, “Prostrate to Adam”, and they prostrated, except Iblis, he refused to be those who prostrate.
God said: “What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate when I commanded you?”
Iblis said: “I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire and him You created from clay.”(Qur’an 7:11-12)
So Iblis became the first sinner and would become the representative of sin. So it was Pride and Jealousy which led him astray. In these two basic principles of evil he has and will misguide billions.
The Almighty said: “O Iblis get down from this (Paradise), it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out for you are of those disgraced and rejected.”Iblis replied: “Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up (Day of Resurrection).”God replied to him: “You are of those allowed respite.”Iblis said: “Because You have sent me astray, surely I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your Straight Path. Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left and You will not find most of them as thankful ones (they will not be dutiful to You).”
He could have repented, but his desire led him far astray. This was to the extent that he blamed God for his choice which he made in complete arrogance.
God said: “Get out from Paradise, disgraced and expelled. Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surely I will fill Hell with you all.”"And O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in Paradise, and eat thereof as you both wish, but approach not this tree otherwise you both will be of the oppresive.”Then Satan whispered suggestions to them both in order to uncover that which was hidden from them of their private parts before, he said:” Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.” Satan swore by God to them both saying: “Verily I am one of the sincere well wishers for you both.”(Qur’an 13-21) He misled them by enticing that all they have to do is eat from the tree and they will become immortals as the angels.
So he misled them with deception. Then when they tasted of the tree, that which was hidden from them of their shame (private parts) became manifest to them and they began to stick together the leaves of Paradise over themselves (in order to cover their shame). Their Lord called out to them saying “Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you, Indeed Satan is an open enemy unto you?”
They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” God said: “Get down one of you an enemy to the other (i.e. Adam, Eve, and Satan etc). On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment, for a time.” He said: “Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).” (Qur’an, 7:11-25).
When God the Almighty decided to create Adam:
He addressed His angels and jinn and told them to prostrate before him. He did not mean to ask their opinion or take their advice, for He is above that. God the Exalted told them that He was going to create a vicegerent on the earth who would have children and grandchildren who would corrupt the earth and shed each other’s blood. That is why the angels said God Almighty: “Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood!” (Qur’an 2:30).
Abi Musa al Sha’arai narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “God created Adam from a handful of dust taken from different lands, so the children of Adam have been created according to the composition of the land. Therefore from mankind we have white, red, black and yellow ones; we have good and evil, ease and sorrow, and what comes in between them.” (Sahih al Bukhari). This is one of the scientific miracles of the Sunnah. It has only recently been proven that the different colors of man come from their being from different climate zones across the globe.
Ibn Masud and other companions narrated the Prophet (PBUH) said “God the Almighty sent Gabriel onto the earth and said that the Almighty sent Gabriel to earth to gather some clay. The earth said: “I seek refuge in God from your decreasing my quantity or disfiguring me.” So Gabriel returned and did not take anything. He said: “My Lord, the land sought refuge in You and it was granted.”So God sent Michael for the same purpose, and the land sought refuge with God and it was granted. So he went back and said to God what Gabriel has said before him.
Then God sent the Angel of Death, and the land sought refuge in God, the angel said: “I also seek refuge with God from returning without carrying out His command.” So he took clay from the face of the earth and mixed it. He did not take from one particular place, but rather he took white, red, and black clay from different places.
The Angel of Death ascended with it, God soaked the clay till it became sticky. Then God said to the angels: “Truly, I am going to create man from clay. So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him.” (Chapter 38:71-72 Qur’an).
So God shaped Adam into a human being, but he remained a figure of clay for 40 years. The angels went past him. They were seized with fear by what they saw, and Iblis felt fear most. He used to pass by the figure of Adam, thump it, which would make a sound like pottery. God told us: “He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the clay of pottery.” (Qur’an 55:14)When the time drew near to blow the spirit into Adam, as God decreed, He commanded the angels: “When I blow My spirit into him prostrate before him.” God breathed His spirit into Adam and when it reached his head Adam sneezed. The angels said: “Say all praise belongs to God.” Adam repeated: “All praise belongs to God.” God said to him: “Your Lord has granted you mercy.” When the spirit reached his eyes, Adam looked at the fruits of Paradise. When it reached his abdomen Adam felt an appetite for food. He jumped hurriedly before the spirit could reach his legs, so that he could eat from the fruits of Paradise. God, therefore, said: “Man is created of haste.” (Qur’an 21:37 )
“And then: The angels prostrated themselves all of them together. Except Iblis, he refused to be among the prostraters.” (Qur’an 15:31-32).
“Verily His Command, when He intends a thing is only that He says to it, “BE!” and it is! (Qur’an 37:82).
God the Almighty declared: “Verily the likeness of Jesus, in God’s Sight is the likeness of Adam, He created him from the dust then He said to him. “Be!” –and he was. “(Qur’an 3:59).Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “God created Adam from dust after He mixed the clay and left him for some time until it became sticky mud, after which God shaped him. After that Allah left him till it became like potter’s clay. Iblis used to go past him saying ‘You have been created for a great purpose.’ After that God breathed His spirit into him. The first thing into which the spirit passed was his eye and then his nose. He sneezed. God said: “May your Lord have mercy upon you, O Adam! Go to those angels and see what they would say.’ So Adam went and greeted them. They replied saying: “Peace, mercy and blessings of God be upon you.” God said: “O Adam! This is your greeting and that of your offspring.” (Sahih al Bukhari).
God the Almighty revealed:
Remember when your Lord brought forth from the children of Adam, from their loins, their seed (or from Adam’s loin his offspring) and made them testify as to themselves saying: “Am I not your Lord?” They said: “Yes! We testify.” lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection. “Verily we have been unaware of this.” Or lest you should say: “It was only our father aforetime who took others as partners in worship along with God and we were merely their descendants after them; will you then destroy us because of the deeds of men who practiced falsehood, committing crimes and sins, invoking and worshipping others besides God?” Thus do We explain the revelation in detail so that they may turn unto the truth. (Qur’an 7:172-174).Adam’s progeny declared: “Our Lord, we bear witness that You are our Lord; we have no other Lord but God. God raised their father Adam, and he looked at them and saw those of them who were rich and those who were poor, and those who had good forms and those who did not. Adam said: “O God! I wish You to make Your servants equal.” God replied “I love being thanked.” Adam saw among the Prophets like lamps among his progeny. Almighty God declared: Remember when We took from the Prophets their covenant, and from you ( Muhammad), and from Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus son of Mary. We took from them a strong covenant. (Qur’an 33:7).In another verse God the Exalted commanded: “(O Muhammad) direct yourself to the religion of pure Islamic Monotheism with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in the Religion of God, that is the straight religion, but most men know not.” (Qur’an 30:30).
Adam opened his eyes and saw all the angels prostrating before him except one being who was standing at a distance Adam did not know what kind of creature it was that did not prostrate before him nor did he know its name. Iblis was standing with the angels so as to be included in the command given to them but he was not one of them. He was a jinn, and as such he was supposed to be inferior to the angels. What is clear is that this prostration was to show respect and did not mean that the angels were worshipping Adam. Prostrating in worship is done only for God.
Almighty God recounted the story of Iblis’s refusal to prostate before Adam: Remember when your Lord said to the angels, “I am going to create a man (Adam) from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud. So when I have fashioned him completely and breathed into him (Adam) the soul which I created for him then fall you down prostrating yourselves unto him.” SO the angels prostrated themselves all of them together, except Iblis, he refused to be among the prostrators. God said “O Iblis! What is your reason for not being among the prostrators?” Iblis said: “I am not the one to prostrate myself to a human being, whom You created from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud.” God said: “Then get out from here for verily you are an outcast or cursed one. Verily the curse shall be upon you till Day of Recompense (Day of Resurrection).(Qur’an 15:28-35).In another chapter The Almighty recounted it thus: Surely We created you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human being), then We told the angels, “Prostrate to Adam and they prostrated except Iblis he refused to be of those who prostrate. God said: “What prevented you Iblis that you did not prostrate when I commanded you?” Iblis said: “I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire and him You created from clay.” God said: “Get down from this Paradise, it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.” Iblis said: Allow me respite till the Day of Resurrection).”God said: “You are of those allowed respite.” (Qur’an 7:11-15).Ibn Jarir reported that Muhammad Ibn sirin said that the first one to reach a conclusion by reasoning was Iblis and that the sun and moon were not worshiped except through this method.
This means that Iblis tried to compare himself to Adam. He believed that he was more honorable than Adam. Therefore he abstained from prostrating even though God had commanded him to do so, just as He had commanded the angels. If an analogy is made we see that Iblis is vain. For indeed clay is better than fire because in it can be found the qualities of calmness, clemency, perseverance and growth; whereas in fire can be found heedlessness, insignificance, haste, and incineration.
Iblis tried in vain to justify his refusal: “Shall I prostrate to one whom You created from clay?” Iblis said: “See? Those whom You have honored above me, if You give me respite (keep me alive) to the Day of Resurrection, I will surely seize and mislead his offspring (by sending them astray) all but a few!” (Qur’an 17:62).
Through this event beginning Adam’s life he was amazed at the audacity of Iblis towards his creator. How he imagined that fire is better than clay, but how did he get such an idea? Such knowledge is exclusive to God Who created both fire and clay and Who knows which is the better of the two.
From the dialogue Adam realized that Iblis was a creature characterized by cunning and ingratitude. He then knew that Iblis was his eternal enemy. Immediately after his creation Adam witnessed the large amount of freedom that God gives to His commissioned creatures.
God knew that Iblis was not going to obey Him in prostrating before Adam. God could have totally annihilated him or turned him into a handful of dust or stifled the refusal in his mouth. Yet, God gives His commissioned creatures’ absolute freedom even to the extent that they can refuse God the Almighty’s commands. He grants them the freedom of denial, disobedience, and even disagreement with Him.
His kingdom will not diminish if the disbelievers do not believe in Him nor will it be extended if many people believe in Him. On the contrary, the disbelievers will lose, and the believers will gain but God alone is above all of that.
There were many traditions about Iblis at the time of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Ibn Masud, Ibn Abbas and a group of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that Iblis had been the head of the angels in the worldly heavens. Ibn Abbas said in one narration that his name had been Azazil and in another narration he said it had been Al Harith. Ibn Abbas also said that Iblis was a jinn and that they had once been the keepers of Paradise, with Iblis the most honorable and the most learned and the most pious of them.
God Almighty recounts Iblis’s disobedience in another chapter: Remember when your Lord said to the angels: “Truly I am going to create man from clay. So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him.” So the angels prostrated themselves all of them; except Iblis, he was proud and was one of the disbelievers.
God said: “The truth is, and the truth I say, that I will fill Hell with you and those of (mankind) that follow you together.” (Qur’an 38:71-75).
After this lesson about freedom Adam learned another lesson about knowledge. Adam realized that Iblis was the symbol of evil in the universe and that the angels were the symbol of good. However he did not yet know anything about himself. Then God made him perceive his true identity and the reason for his creation, and the secret of his glorification.
God the Exalted said: He taught Adam all the names of everything. (Qur’an,2:31 ).The Almighty granted Adam the power to know the natures of all things and to summarize them by names; that is a bird, that is a star, that is a tree, etc God implanted in Adam an insatiable need for and love of knowledge and a desire to bequeath knowledge to his children. This was the reason for his creation and the secret of his glorification. After Adam had learned the names of all things, along with their properties and uses, God presented them to the angels and said: “Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful.” (Ch 2:31)
the angels admitted their inability: “Glory be to You, we have knowledge except what You have taught us. Verily it is You the All Knower, the All Wise.” (Qur’an, 2:32)God Almighty then turned to Adam: “O Adam! Inform them of their names, ” and when he had informed them of their names, He said:“Did I not tell you that I know the unseen in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been hiding?” (Qur’an 2:33).
God wanted the angels to know that He knew of their astonishment when He had told them about the creation of Adam and that He also knew of their confusion which they had not revealed, as well as what Iblis had concealed of his disobedience and ingratitude.
The angels realized that Adam was the creature who knew what they did not know and that his capacity to learn was his noblest quality. His knowledge included knowledge of the Creator which he will have to know to reach pure faith and practice. More importantly he possesses all kinds of worldly knowledge which will enable him to continue evolving until the Day of Judgment.
Adam knew the names of everything. Sometimes he talked to the angels, but they were preoccupied with worshipping Almighty God. Therefore Adam, felt lonely. One day he slept and when he awoke he found near his head, a woman gazing at his face with beautiful tender eyes.
The angels asked him her name He replied: “Eve (Hawa).” (means living things). They asked: “Why did you call her Eve?” Adam said: “Because she was created of me and I am a living being.”
Ibn Abbas and a group of companions of the Prophet (PBUH) narrated that when Iblis was sent out of Paradise and Adam was accommodated therein, Adam was alone in Paradise and did not have a partner from whom he could get tranquility. He slept for some time and when he woke up, he saw a woman whom God had created from his ribs. So he asked her, “Who are you? She replied, “A woman” He asked: “Why have you been created?” She said: “So that you could find tranquility in me.” The angels, trying to find out the extent of his knowledge, asked him: “What is her name O Adam?” He replied, “Eve” They asked “Why was she so named?” He replied, ” Because she was created from something living.”
Muhammad Ibn Ishaaq and Ibn Abbas related that Eve was created from the shortest left rib of Adam while he was sleeping and after awhile she was clothed with flesh. that is why God the Exalted said: O Mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam) and from Him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women. (Qur’an 4:1)God also said: It is he Who has created you from a single person (Adam) and then He created from him his wife (Eve), in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her. (Ch 7:189).Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “O Muslims! I advise you to be gentle with women, for they are created from a rib, and the most crooked portion of the rib is its upper part. If you try to straighten it, it will break and if you leave it, it will remain crooked, so I urge you to take care of the women.” (Sahih Bukhari).The meaning of this Hadith is not about the woman being crooked as some might think. The emphasis is on the fact that a woman was created differently from a man and therefore has a different nature. So for a man to try to change her to a way that she is not will harm her, as well as being foolish for the man.
God commanded Adam to dwell in Paradise: “O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be in the wrong.( 2:35)
Adam and eve were admitted to Paradise and there they lived the dream of all human beings. God permitted them to approach and enjoy everything except one tree. God forbade them they were give abode in Paradise. “But come not near this tree or you both will be of the wrong doers.” (Qur’an 2:35)Adam and Eve understood that they were forbidden to eat the fruit of that tree. Adam was however a human being and man tends to forget. His heart changes and his will weakens. Iblis summoned all the envy within him and took advantage of Adam’s humanity to exploit him. He started to whisper to him day after day, coaxing him: “Shall I guide you to the Tree of Immortality and the Eternal Kingdom?” He said to them: “Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.” He (Satan) swore by God to them both saying: “Verily I am one of the sincere well wishers for you both.” (Qur’an, 7:20-21) Adam asked himself: “What will happen if I eat from this tree? It might truly be the Tree of Immortality.” His dream was to live forever in the pure innocence of Paradise.”
Years went by, and Adam and Eve were preoccupied with thoughts of that tree. Then one day they decided to eat of its fruit. They forgot that God had warned them not to approach it and that Iblis was their sworn enemy. Adam stretched out his hand, picked one of the fruits and offered it to Eve. They both ate of the forbidden tree.
God Almighty told us: “So he (Satan) misled them with deception.” (Qur’an 7:22)God said: “Thus did Adam disobey his Lord so he went astray.” (Qur’an 20:121). Adam had hardly finished eating when he felt his heart contract, and he as filled with pain, sadness and shame. The surrounding atmosphere had changed and the internal music had stopped. He discovered that he and his wife were naked, so they both started cutting tree leaves to cover themselves with.
God the Almighty addressed him: “Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily Satan is an open enemy unto you?” They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” God said; “Get down, one of you an enemy to the other (Adam, Eve, and Satan etc). On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment, for a time.” He said: “Therein you shall live and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).”(Qur’an,7:22-25).They left Paradise and descended upon the earth. Adam was sad and Eve was crying. God accepted their repentance because it was sincere and He told them that the earth would be their realm and origin where they would live and die and whence they would come on the Day of Judgment.