The History of 'Ashurah

 Muslims must fear Allah and take lessons from what Allah has told us in the Noble Qur’an regarding the Prophets and Messengers of Allah and the previous nations.
Allah said (which means): “Indeed in their stories, there is a lesson for men of understanding. It (the Qur’an) is not a forged statement, but a confirmation of Allah’s existing books (the Torah, the Gospel, and other Scriptures of Allah), a detailed explanation of everything, and a guide and a mercy for the people who believe.” (Yusuf 12:111)
And among the stories that Allah has narrated to us in His Book is what happened in Allah’s month, the sacred month of Muharram, and that is the story of Prophet Moosa (Moses) and Pharaoh, the tyrant of Egypt. In the Qur’an, Allah tells us this story which means: “We recite to you some of the news of Moosa and Pharaoh in truth, for a people who believe (i.e. those who believe in this Qur’an and in the Oneness of Allah). Verily, Pharaoh exalted himself in the land and made its people sects, weakening (oppressing) a group (Children of Israel) among them, killing their sons and letting their females live. Verily, he was of those who work corruption. And We wished to do a favour for those who were weak (and oppressed) in the land, and to make them rulers and to make them the inheritors, and to establish them in the land, and We let Pharaoh and Haamaan (a minister of Pharaoh) and their hosts receive from them that which they feared.” (Al-Qasas 28:3-6)
Pharaoh dominated the nation of Israel and enslaved them, killing their newborn sons but letting their females live. The reason he committed this criminal act was the fear of the truth coming out from one of those newborn males. The nation of Israel used to know, according to what came to them from Prophet Ibraheem (Abraham), that someone from his lineage would destroy the king of Egypt. These glad tidings were famous among them; and the news of it was made known to Pharaoh. Pharaoh ordered his soldiers to kill all newborn boys of the nation of Israel; in order to secure himself from destruction.
However, all of the precautions that he made were not enough to protect him from what Allah wanted, which was for this newborn boy to be raised in the house of Pharaoh. The will of Allah cannot be stopped by any precautions and His ability conquers anything. So Allah chose for the Prophet Moosa to be born safely, to be saved from being killed, and also to be raised in Pharaoh’s own home under the protection of Allah until he was an adult.
Later, Moosa accidentally killed a person from Pharaoh’s people by mistake. Moosa was afraid that he would be captured and be killed for this, so he fled to the land of Madyan and abided there for some time. He married there and then returned to Egypt. On the way back, Allah talked to him (by revelation) and told him he was a Prophet and the Messenger to Pharaoh. Allah told him many signs by which he will be known as the prophet of Allah and they would show that he was a true prophet.
Moosa went to Pharaoh and showed him the signs of Allah but Pharaoh was arrogant and stubborn. Allah says (which means):
“Has there come to you the story of Moosa? When his Lord called him in the Valley of Tuwaa. ‘Go to Pharaoh, verily he has transgressed all bounds (in crimes, sins, polytheism and disbelief). And say to him, ‘Would you purify yourself (from the sin of disbelief and by becoming a believer)? And that I guide you to your Lord, so you should fear Him?’ Then (Moosa) showed him the great signs (miracles). But (Pharaoh) belied and disobeyed; then he turned his back, striving hard against (Allah). Then he gathered his people and cried aloud, saying, ‘I am your lord, most high.’” (An-Naazi’aat 79:15-24)
Pharaoh claimed that the signs Moosa brought were only magic and that he had magic that would overtake the magic of Moosa. So Pharaoh gathered magicians from his kingdom and they presented their magic, and Moosa presented what he had from the signs, which Allah had given him.
Allah said (which means):“Thus truth was confirmed, and all that they did was made of no effect. So they were defeated there and then, and were returned disgraced. And the sorcerers fell down prostrate. They said, ‘We believe in the Lord of the Worlds, the Lord of Moosa and Haaroon (Aaron).’” (Al-A’araf 7:118-122)
At that time Pharaoh decided to try a different plan - fear, force and retaliation. Allah told Moosa to get every believer out of Egypt and direct them to where Allah would tell him. Pharaoh gathered his army and forces, which were around one million soldiers, according to some references, and he chased Moosa and his people, hoping to destroy them completely. Moosa ended up at the sea with Pharaoh and his army behind him. The believers were afraid because the sea was in front of them and the enemy was behind them.
Allah says (which means): “And when the two hosts saw each other, the people of Moosa, said, ‘We are sure to be overtaken. (Moosa) said, ‘Nay, verily! With me is my Lord and He will guide me!’” (Ash-Shu’araa 26:61-62)
Whoever is close to Allah, Allah will never let him down or leave him on his own. Allah ordered Moosa to strike the sea with his staff. Moosa did so and the sea opened up for them to cross. Allah says (which means): “And indeed We inspired Moosa (saying): ‘Travel by night with My slaves and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken (by Pharaoh) nor being afraid (of drowning).” (Taa-Haa 20:77)
Moosa walked across the path that opened in the sea and the last of his people left the sea and every soldier of Pharaoh’s army was inside the path. At this time Allah ordered the sea to collapse upon them, drowning Pharaoh and his army.
That was the victory of the truth over falsehood. The promise of Allah was true – He made the people of Moosa victorious over Pharaoh and his army. From this story we see how the truth is victorious, regardless of the size or seeming power of falsehood. Falsehood has its own limited time, but the truth is always victorious.
This story should enrich the hearts of the believers and make them steadfast in the face of their enemies, regardless of size or seeming power of their enemies. The believer should also benefit from this story by understanding that the people of falsehood claim that they are on the right path and are calling people to the truth. In fact, the opposite is true - they rely on lies and deception.
This great event – the victory Allah gave Moosa and the believers over Pharaoh and his army - occurred on the 10th of the sacred month of Muharram and the day is called Yaumul 'Ashurah' (the day of 'Ashurah'). It is a day that has a great merit. Prophet Moosa fasted on that day, and ordered the people to fast that day.
Ibn ‘Abbass reported that when the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) arrived in Madinah, he found the Jews fasting on the day of Ashura. The Messenger of Allah asked them, “What is the significance of this day that you fast on?” They said: “It is the day of great significance when Allah delivered Moosa and his people and drowned Pharaoh and his people. Moosa observed fast out of gratitude, and we also observe it.” Upon this, the Messenger of Allah said, “We have more right and we have a closer connection to Moosa than you have.”
So Allah’s Messenger fasted (on the day of Ashura) and gave orders that it should be observed.
We also benefit from the story of Moosa by learning that the Sunnah of the Prophets is to thank and praise Allah in times of peace and when they gain victory over their enemies. Moosa fasted on the 10th, the day on which Allah made his followers victorious over Pharaoh; and this is another sign that the truth will always defeat falsehood.

Virtues of Friday

Praise be to Allaah.
Friday has many distinguishing features and virtues that Allaah has bestowed upon this day and not others. 
It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah and Hudhayfah (may Allaah be pleased with them) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah led those who came before us away from Friday. The Jews had Saturday, and the Christians had Sunday. Then Allaah brought us and Allaah guided us to Friday. So there is Friday, Saturday and Sunday, and thus they will follow us on the Day of Resurrection. We are the last of the people of this world but we will be the first on the Day of Resurrection, and we will be dealt with before all others.” 
Narrated by Muslim, 856. 
Al-Nawawi said: 
Al-Qaadi said: The apparent meaning is that it was obligatory for them to venerate Friday but this was not stated clearly; the matter was left to their own reasoning… But they did not manage to work it out and Allaah did not guide them to it. It was enjoined clearly upon this ummah, and was not left to their own reasoning, thus they were blessed with it … It was narrated that Moosa enjoined Friday upon them and told them of its virtues, but they disputed with him and argued that Saturday was better, and it was said to him, ‘Let them be.’ Al-Qaadi said: if there had been a clear command, their arguing with him would not have been valid, rather it would have been said to him that they were going against the command. I say: it may be that that was clearly enjoined upon them but they disputed as to whether it was something they had to adhere to or they could change it to another day; they decided to change it to another day and they erred greatly thereby. 
It comes as no surprise that Friday was specifically enjoined upon them and they went against that. 
Al-Haafiz said: How can it be otherwise when they are the ones who said “We hear and we disobey”? 
It was narrated from Aws ibn Aws that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The best of your days is Friday. On that day Adam (peace be upon him) was created; on that day he died; on that day the Trumpet will be blown and on that day all of creation will swoon. So send a great deal of blessings upon me, for your blessings will be shown to me.” They said, “O Messenger of Allaah, how will our blessings upon you be shown to you when you have turned to dust?” He said, “Allaah has forbidden the earth to consume the bodies of the Prophets, peace be upon them.” 
Narrated by Abu Dawood, 1047; classed as saheeh by Ibn al-Qayyim in his comments on Sunan Abi Dawood, 4/273; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood, 925. 
It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The best day on which the sun rises is Friday. On it Adam was created, on it he was admitted to Paradise and on it he was expelled therefrom.” 
Narrated by Muslim, 1410. 
This hadeeth includes some of the reasons why Friday is regarded as special.  
Al-Nawawi said: 
Al-Qaadi ‘Iyaad said: The apparent meaning is that these virtues do not mean that Friday is regarded as special because Adam was expelled on a Friday and the Hour will begin on a Friday. Rather it is meant to explain what momentous events took place and will take place on this day, so that people will make the most of this day to do righteous deeds, so as to attain the mercy of Allaah and ward off His punishment.  This is the view of al-Qaadi. Abu Bakr ibn al-‘Arabi said in his book al-Ahwadhi fi Sharh al-Tirmidhi: All of these events are good and add to the virtue of Friday. The expulsion of Adam from Paradise is the reason why his offspring and the Messengers, the Prophets, the righteous and the awliya’ exist. He was not expelled from it as such, but rather it was for a purpose, then he will return to it. With regard to the Hour beginning on a Friday, the reason is so that the reward may be hastened for the Prophets, believers in truth, awliya’ and others, and their honour and high status may be made manifest. This hadeeth points to the virtues of Friday and its high status in relation to the other days.  
It was narrated that Abu Lubaabah ibn ‘Abd al-Mundhir said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Friday is the master of days, and the greatest of them before Allaah. It is greater before Allaah than the day of al-Adha and the day of al-Fitr. It has five characteristics: on this day Allaah created Adam, on it He sent Adam down to the earth, on it Allaah caused Adam to die, on it there is a time when a person does not ask Allaah for anything but He gives it to him, so long as he does not ask for anything haraam, and on it the Hour will begin. There is no angel who is close to Allaah, no heaven, no earth, no wind, no mountain and no sea that does not fear Friday.” 
Narrated by Ibn Maajah, 1084; classed as hasan by Shaykh al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, no. 2279 
Al-Sanadi said:  
“They fear Friday” means they fear the onset of the Hour. This indicates that all created beings are aware of the days and they know that the Day of Resurrection will come on a Friday. 
The virtues of this day include the following: 
1 – On it is Salaat al-Jumu’ah (Friday prayer), which is the best of prayer. 
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 
“O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salaah (prayer) on Friday (Jumu‘ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allaah [Jumu‘ah religious talk (Khutbah) and Salaah (prayer)] and leave off business (and every other thing). That is better for you if you did but know!”
[al-Jumu’ah 62:9] 
Muslim (233) narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The five daily prayers and from one Jumu’ah to the next is an expiation for whatever sins come in between them, so long as one does not commit a major sin.” 
2 – Praying Fajr in congregation on Fridays is the best prayer that the Muslim can pray during the week. 
It was narrated that Ibn ‘Umar said: The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The best prayer before Allaah is Fajr prayer on Friday in congregation.” 
Narrated by al-Bayhaqi in Shu’ab al-Eemaan; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 1119 
One of the special features of Fajr prayer on Friday is that it is Sunnah to recite Soorat al-Sajdah in the first rak’ah and Soorat al-Insaan in the second. 
It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite in Fajr prayer in Fridays Alif-Laam-Meem Tanzeel (Soorat al-Sajdah) in the first rak’ah and Hal ata ‘ala’l-insaan heenun min al-dahr lam yakun shay’an madhkooran (Soorat al-Insaan) in the second. 
Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 851; Muslim, 880. 
Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar said: 
It was said that the reason why these two soorahs are recited is because they mention the creation of Adam and what will happen on the Day of Resurrection, because that will come to pass on a Friday. 
3 – Whoever dies during the day or night of Friday, Allaah will protect him from the trial of the grave. 
It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There is no Muslim who dies during the day of Friday or the night of Friday but Allaah will protect him from the trial of the grave.” 
Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 1074; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Ahkaam al-Janaa’iz, p. 49, 50 
These are some of the virtues of Friday. We ask Allaah to help us to please Him. 
And Allaah knows best.
Islam Q&A

توصيات فيسبوكية

في الفيس بوك (1): 

من المعروف أنَّ الحياء المتوازِن يَعتلي عرشَ الأخلاق عند الأُنثى، وهو ما يميِّزها، بل وفقدانها له يُعتبر كارثة ووصمةَ عار!

فحين ترى في (الفيس بوك) فتاةً تتغنَّى بالأحاديث الخارجة عن دائرة الأدَب، وكأنَّك ترى مشهدًا إباحيًّا أمامك بسبب حديثها، أو تقوم بوضع الصُّور المخلَّة بالأدب، والذَّوق العامِّ، أو تتشدَّق بـ (غلاي، يا الغالي، يا قلبي.. إلخ) لرجلٍ ما، فاعلم فورًا أيُّها القارئ الكريم - رعاك الله - أنَّها "لا تستحي"!

في الفيس بوك (2):

من المتَّفَق عليه أن أوَّل ما يدلُّ على تفكير الشخص، ومدى ثقافته وإمكانيَّة الاستفادة منه، هو الاطِّلاع على اهتماماته، فحين تجد في (الفيس بوك) مَن يضع لك من ضِمن معلوماته أنَّه تخرَّج، أو لا يزال يدرس في مدرسة (العشق والحب)، فـ "اغسل يدك منه"؛ أي بمعنى: دَعْه جانبًا، ومارِسْ معه (مرور الكرام)!

في الفيس بوك (3):

(الأمانة والصِّدق) هي صمام الأمان في علاقاتك مع الآخرين، بل وأضمن لك تمامًا أنَّ هؤلاء الصادقين الأَمِينين لا يمكن أن يقوموا بإيذائك يومًا، أمَّا الكاذبون عديمو الأمانة، فهؤلاء شرٌّ أنت في غِنًى عنه، فإذا وجدتَ في (الفيس بوك) مَن ينقل أحاديث الآخرين دون أن يذكر أسماءهم، أو يشير إليهم، بل والأدهى والأمرُّ أن يقوم بالكذب، فيستقبل المديح والثَّناء بِدَعوى أنَّه مَن قام بكتابتها؛ لِيُحقِّق غرضًا دنيئًا في نفسه؛ فتيقَّن تمام اليقين أنَّ عليك محْوَه محوًا جذريًّا من علاقاتك؛ فوجوده ضررٌ لك في المقام الأوَّل!

في الفيس بوك (4):

شخصٌ يحقِّق لك الاستفادة ولو بقراءة إضافاته في (الفيس بوك) الَّتي إمَّا أن تُنير لك فكرةً، أو تُضيف لك معلومة، أو تثري لديك مهارات عدَّة، خيرٌ من شخصٍ لا يفتأ يتحدَّث عن الحبِّ أو الحزن في كلِّ إضافاته، فتبحث له عن فائدة ترجوها مِمَّا يَكتب، فلا تجد، أو تَنوُّعٍ في الطَّرح، أو لغةٍ صحيحة سليمة، فلا ترى لذلك أثرًا، فاحرص على إبقاء الأوَّل، حتَّى لو لم يكن يشاركك كثيرًا، وأبعِد الثاني؛ فلا فائدة تُذكَر منه!

في الفيس بوك (5):

عزيزتي الأنثى، إنَّ مَن يحترمكِ سيختار ألفاظًا مهذَّبة حين يريد أن يتحدَّث إليكِ ويُعاملكِ كصاحبة شأنٍ رفيع، فلا يتجاوز في خطابه معك، أو ثنائِه عليكِ، أو إعجابه بمهاراتكِ، أمَّا أولئكَ الذين قد تجدينهم في (الفيس بوك) يقومون بمناداتكِ بطريقة خاليةٍ من الذَّوق، أو بعيدة عن حدود الاحترام؛ كـ (يا قمر، يا عسل، يا حبيبتي... ونحوها)، فاعلمي أنَّهم (أصحاب غزَل)، يُسيؤون إليكِ، وإلى مقامكِ، فلا تَرضَيْ ببقائهم أمامكِ ولو لثانية! 

في الفيس بوك (6):

كلٌّ له توجُّهاته واهتماماته، فارتَقِ باهتماماتك دائمًا، واحرص في (الفيس بوك) على انتقاء أصحاب التوجُّهات الحسَنة، فلا شيء سيَنفعُك مِن مُصاحبة شخصٍ لا يَعرف مِن هذا الموقع إلاَّ الألعاب واللَّعِب، أو ذاك الذي لا يعرف سوى وضْع المقاطع الغنائيَّة، أو الترويج لأفلامٍ هابطة، أو التعارف والتَّلاعب بالآخرين، اجعل قائمتك نظيفة لا تحمل سوى الجميل والمثمِر المفيد، وسينعكس ذلك عليك بلا شكٍّ؛ فالبيئة الصالحة تُغذِّيك بالجميل، والبيئة الفاسدة تغذِّيك بالقبيح، والاختيار لك وحدك!

في الفيس بوك (7):

إعجابك بالشيء يدلُّ عليك، حتَّى وإن كنت مجرَّد شخصٍ لا يقرأ، ولا يرى، ولا يفهم شيئًا، فقط يضع إعجابه ويرحَل! فكُن حريصًا على ما تقوله، وما تقرؤه، وما تُعجب به أيضًا.

فكم في (الفيس بوك) من صفحاتٍ سيِّئة، تُسيء للدِّين والأخلاق، ويقوم البعضُ - بكلِّ غباء - بالإعجاب بهذه الصَّفحات؛ لِكَيل الشتائم والسِّباب لصاحب الصفحة، دون التنبُّه إلى أنه حقَّق رغبةَ صاحبها، وزاد مِن نشْرِها بإعجابه ذاك، في وقتِ كان بإمكانه التَّعاملُ مع الأمر بعقلانيَّة؛ وذلك بالتبليغ عنها فقط، فينتهي أمْرُها، ولا يتحقَّق مقصدها من زيادة عدد المعجبين، أو إغاظتهم بشكلٍ أو بآخر. 

في الفيس بوك (8):

دعْ عنك التَّعامل مع الآخرين وفق مبدأ: (تُعطِني أُعطِك!)، فإنَّك إن سِرْتَ على هذا المبدأ ستُصبح شخصًا يَبحث عن المقابل في كلِّ شيء، حتَّى في الإحسان!

ففي (الفيس بوك) شارِكْ أصدقاءك حين ترى أنَّ هناك شيئًا يستحقُّ المشاركة دون فتح باب الحسابات، والنَّظر في حالهم إنْ كان سبق ووضعوا ردًّا في صفحتك أم لا.

تعامَلْ بِعَفويَّة، ودون انتظار مقابل، شارِك؛ لأنك ترى أنَّ ذلك الشيء يستحقُّ المشاركة، بغضِّ النظر عن حساباتٍ طويلة وفارغة مع صاحبه، وتذكَّر أنَّك أنت أيضًا لم تضَعْ ردًّا واحدًا في صفحات بعضهم، ولكنهم ما زالوا يحتفظون بك، بل وتقرأ لهم، ويَقرؤون لك، وهذا هو الأهم!

في الفيس بوك (9):

لا تضَعْ في (الفيس بوك) إلاَّ كل ما هو مفيدٌ وجميل، إيَّاك والمُحرَّمات؛ فإنَّها سيئاتٌ جارية، وذِكْرى محزنة، فكم أحزنَني وجودُ مقاطع غنائيَّة لإحداهن، وقد تُوُفِّيَت - رحمها الله - فأخذ أحدُ أصدقائها يَطلب من الآخرين عدمَ سماع ما وضعَتْه؛ عسى الله أن يغفر لها.

دائمًا إن لم تكن قادرًا على ترك السُّوء، فجاهِدْ، واكتفِ به لنفسك، لست بحاجةٍ إلى زيادة وِزْرِك بنشره للآخرين. 

في الفيس بوك (10):

كن شجرةً مثمِرة، ظِلُّها يقي من حرارة الجهل، وثمَرُها يُغني من جوع الفراغ، قَدِّم لأصدقائك الفائدة، أَثْرِ معلوماتهم، شارِك مجتمعك في همومه، وإخوانَك في همومهم وهموم أوطانهم، كُن قريبًا من الجميع، وبين ذلك وذاك كن متوازنًا في تعاملك؛ فلا تتَعالَ عليهم، أو تُكثِرْ من نَقْدِهم، أو تتدخَّلْ في شؤونهم الخاصَّة.

واعلم أخيرًا - أيُّها القارئ الكريم - أنك تستحقُّ أن يُخلَّد في صفحات حياتك ذكرى طيِّبة، لا يخبو سَناها حتى بعد مماتِك، فاجعل صفحتك في (الفيس بوك) صفحةَ دينٍ وسَلام، وجمالٍ ومحبَّة، صفحةً تنبض باسْمِك وبأخلاقكَ دائمًا وأبدًا.

ابتسام فهد

موقع الألوكة

Morning Remembrance

1- أَصْـبَحْنا وَأَصْـبَحَ المُـلْكُ لله وَالحَمدُ لله ، لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّهُ وَحدَهُ لا شَريكَ لهُ، لهُ المُـلكُ ولهُ الحَمْـد، وهُوَ على كلّ شَيءٍ قدير ، رَبِّ أسْـأَلُـكَ خَـيرَ ما في هـذا اليوم وَخَـيرَ ما بَعْـدَه ، وَأَعـوذُ بِكَ مِنْ شَـرِّ هـذا اليوم وَشَرِّ ما بَعْـدَه، رَبِّ أَعـوذُبِكَ مِنَ الْكَسَـلِ وَسـوءِ الْكِـبَر ، رَبِّ أَعـوذُبِكَ مِنْ عَـذابٍ في النّـارِ وَعَـذابٍ في القَـبْر.  [مسلم 4/2088]
Asbahna wa-asbahal-mulku lillah walhamdu lillah la ilaha illal-lah, wahdahu la shareeka lah, lahul-mulku walahul-hamd, wahuwa AAala kulli shayin qadeer, rabbi as-aluka khayra ma fee hatha-alyawmi, wakhayra ma baAAdaho, wa-aAAoothu bika min sharri hatha-alyawmi, washarri ma baAAdaho, rabbi aAAoothu bika minal-kasal, wasoo-il kibar, rabbi aAAoothu bika min AAathabin fin-nar, waAAathabin fil-qabr.
‘We have reached the morning and at this very time unto Allah belongs all sovereignty, and all praise is for Allah. None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner, to Him belongs all sovereignty and praise and He is over all things omnipotent. My Lord, I ask You for the good of this day and the good of what follows it and I take refuge in You from the evil of this day and the evil of what follows it. My Lord, I take refuge in You from laziness and senility. My Lord, I take refuge in You from torment in the Fire and punishment in the grave.’
2- اللّهُـمَّ بِكَ أَصْـبَحْنا وَبِكَ أَمْسَـينا ، وَبِكَ نَحْـيا وَبِكَ نَمُـوتُ وَإِلَـيْكَ النُّـشُور.    [الترمذي 5/466]
Allahumma bika asbahna wabika amsayna, wabika nahya ,wabika namootu wa-ilaykan-nushoor.
‘O Allah, by your leave we have reached the morning and by Your leave we have reached the evening, by Your leave we live and die and unto You is our resurrection.’
3- اللّهـمَّ أَنْتَ رَبِّـي لا إلهَ إلاّ أَنْتَ ، خَلَقْتَنـي وَأَنا عَبْـدُك ، وَأَنا عَلـى عَهْـدِكَ وَوَعْـدِكَ ما اسْتَـطَعْـت ، أَعـوذُبِكَ مِنْ شَـرِّ ما صَنَـعْت ، أَبـوءُ لَـكَ بِنِعْـمَتِـكَ عَلَـيَّ وَأَبـوءُ بِذَنْـبي فَاغْفـِرْ لي فَإِنَّـهُ لا يَغْـفِرُ الذُّنـوبَ إِلاّ أَنْتَ .    [البخاري 7/150]
Allahumma anta rabbee la ilaha illa ant, khalaqtanee wa-ana AAabduk, wa-ana AAala AAahdika wawaAAdika mas-tataAAt, aAAoothu bika min sharri ma sanaAAt, aboo-o laka biniAAmatika AAalay, wa-aboo-o bithanbee, faghfir lee fa-innahu la yaghfiruth-thunooba illa ant.
‘O Allah, You are my Lord, none has the right to be worshipped except You, You created me and I am Your servant and I abide to Your covenant and promise as best I can, I take refuge in You from the evil of which I have committed. I acknowledge Your favour upon me and I acknowledge my sin, so forgive me, for verily none can forgive sin except You.’
4- اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أَصْبَـحْتُ أَُشْـهِدُك ، وَأُشْـهِدُ حَمَلَـةَ عَـرْشِـك ، وَمَلائِكَتِك ، وَجَمـيعَ خَلْـقِك ، أَنَّـكَ أَنْـتَ اللهُ لا إلهَ إلاّ أَنْـتَ وَحْـدَكَ لا شَريكَ لَـك ، وَأَنَّ ُ مُحَمّـداً عَبْـدُكَ وَرَسـولُـك .(أربع مرات )    [أبو داود 4/317]
Allahumma innee asbahtu oshhiduk, wa-oshhidu hamalata AAarshik, wamala-ikatak, wajameeAAa khalqik, annaka antal-lahu la ilaha illa ant, wahdaka la shareeka lak, wa-anna Muhammadan AAabduka warasooluk (four times).
‘O Allah, verily I have reached the morning and call on You, the bearers of Your throne, Your angles, and all of Your creation to witness that You are Allah, none has the right to be worshipped except You, alone, without partner and that Muhammad is Your Servant and Messenger.’ (four times).
5- اللّهُـمَّ ما أَصْبَـَحَ بي مِـنْ نِعْـمَةٍ أَو بِأَحَـدٍ مِـنْ خَلْـقِك ، فَمِـنْكَ وَحْـدَكَ لا شريكَ لَـك ، فَلَـكَ الْحَمْـدُ وَلَـكَ الشُّكْـر .  [أبو داود 4/318]
Allahumma ma asbaha bee min niAAmatin, aw bi-ahadin min khalqik, faminka wahdaka la shareeka lak, falakal-hamdu walakash-shukr.
‘O Allah, what blessing I or any of Your creation have risen upon, is from You alone, without partner, so for You is all praise and unto You all thanks.’
6- اللّهُـمَّ عافِـني في بَدَنـي ، اللّهُـمَّ عافِـني في سَمْـعي ، اللّهُـمَّ عافِـني في بَصَـري ، لا إلهَ إلاّ أَنْـتَ . (ثلاثاً)
اللّهُـمَّ إِنّـي أَعـوذُبِكَ مِنَ الْكُـفر ، وَالفَـقْر ، وَأَعـوذُبِكَ مِنْ عَذابِ القَـبْر ، لا إلهَ إلاّ أَنْـتَ . (ثلاثاً) 
   [أبو داود 4/324]
Allahumma AAafinee fee badanee, allahumma AAafinee fee samAAee, allahumma AAafinee fee basaree, la ilaha illa ant.(three times).
Allahumma innee aAAoothu bika minal-kufr, walfaqr, wa-aAAoothu bika min AAathabil-qabr, la ilaha illa ant (three times).
‘O Allah, grant my body health, O Allah, grant my hearing health, O Allah, grant my sight health. None has the right to be worshipped except You.’ (three times)
‘O Allah, I take refuge with You from disbelief and poverty, and I take refuge with You from the punishment of the grave. None has the right to be worshipped except You.’ (three times)
7- حَسْبِـيَ اللّهُ لا إلهَ إلاّ هُوَ عَلَـيهِ تَوَكَّـلتُ وَهُوَ رَبُّ العَرْشِ العَظـيم . ( سبع مَرّات حينَ يصْبِح وَيمسي)    [أبو داود موقوفاً 4/321]
Hasbiyal-lahu la ilaha illa huwa, AAalayhi tawakkalt, wahuwa rabbul-AAarshil-AAatheem
‘Allah is Sufficient for me, none has the right to be worshipped except Him, upon Him I rely and He is Lord of the exalted throne.’ (seven times morning and evening)
8- أَعـوذُبِكَلِمـاتِ اللّهِ التّـامّـاتِ مِنْ شَـرِّ ما خَلَـق . (ثلاثاً إِذا أمسى)    [أحمد 2/290، وصحيح الترمذي 3/187]
aAAoothu bikalimatil-lahit-tammati min sharri ma khalaq.
‘I take refuge in Allah’s perfect words from the evil He has created.’ (three times in the evening)
9- اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أسْـأَلُـكَ العَـفْوَ وَالعـافِـيةَ في الدُّنْـيا وَالآخِـرَة ، اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أسْـأَلُـكَ العَـفْوَ وَالعـافِـيةَ في ديني وَدُنْـيايَ وَأهْـلي وَمالـي ، اللّهُـمَّ اسْتُـرْ عـوْراتي وَآمِـنْ رَوْعاتـي ، اللّهُـمَّ احْفَظْـني مِن بَـينِ يَدَيَّ وَمِن خَلْفـي وَعَن يَمـيني وَعَن شِمـالي ، وَمِن فَوْقـي ، وَأَعـوذُ بِعَظَمَـتِكَ أَن أُغْـتالَ مِن تَحْتـي .    [صحيح ابن ماجه 2/332]
Allahumma innee as-alukal-AAafwa walAAafiyah, fid-dunya wal-akhirah, allahumma innee as-alukal-AAafwa walAAafiyah fee deenee, wadunyaya wa-ahlee, wamalee, allahummas-tur AAawratee, wa-amin rawAAatee, allahummah-fathnee min bayni yaday, wamin khalfee, waAAan yameenee, waAAan shimalee, wamin fawqee, wa-aAAoothu biAAathamatika an oghtala min tahtee.
‘O Allah, I ask You for pardon and well-being in this life and the next. O Allah, I ask You for pardon and well-being in my religious and worldly affairs, and my family and my wealth. O Allah, veil my weaknesses and set at ease my dismay. O Allah, preserve me from the front and from behind and on my right and on my left and from above, and I take refuge with You lest I be swallowed up by the earth.’
10- اللّهُـمَّ عالِـمَ الغَـيْبِ وَالشّـهادَةِ فاطِـرَ السّماواتِ وَالأرْضِ رَبَّ كـلِّ شَـيءٍ وَمَليـكَه ، أَشْهَـدُ أَنْ لا إِلـهَ إِلاّ أَنْت ، أَعـوذُ بِكَ مِن شَـرِّ نَفْسـي وَمِن شَـرِّ الشَّيْـطانِ وَشِـرْكِه ، وَأَنْ أَقْتَـرِفَ عَلـى نَفْسـي سوءاً أَوْ أَجُـرَّهُ إِلـى مُسْـلِم.    [صحيح الترمذي 3/142]
Allahumma AAalimal-ghaybi washshahadah, fatiras-samawati wal-ard, rabba kulli shayin wamaleekah, ashhadu an la ilaha illa ant, aAAoothu bika min sharri nafsee wamin sharrish-shaytani washirkih, waan aqtarifa AAala nafsee soo-an aw ajurrahu ila muslim.
‘O Allah, Knower of the unseen and the seen, Creator of the heavens and the Earth, Lord and Sovereign of all things, I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except You. I take refuge in You from the evil of my soul and from the evil and shirk of the devil, and from committing wrong against my soul or bringing such upon another Muslim.’
11- بِسـمِ اللهِ الذي لا يَضُـرُّ مَعَ اسمِـهِ شَيءٌ في الأرْضِ وَلا في السّمـاءِ وَهـوَ السّمـيعُ العَلـيم . (ثلاثاً)    [أبو داود 4/323]
Bismil-lahil-lathee la yadurru maAAas-mihi shay-on fil-ardi wala fis-sama-i wahuwas-sameeAAul-AAaleem.
‘In the name of Allah with whose name nothing is harmed on earth nor in the heavens and He is The All-Seeing, The All-Knowing.’(three times)
12- رَضيـتُ بِاللهِ رَبَّـاً وَبِالإسْلامِ ديـناً وَبِمُحَـمَّدٍ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَبِيّـاً . (ثلاثاً)    [أبو داود 4/318]
Radeetu billahi rabban wabil-islami deenan wabiMuhammadin peace be upon to him nabiyya.
‘I am pleased with Allah as a Lord, and Islam as a religion and Muhammad peace be upon to him as a Prophet.’(three times
13- سُبْحـانَ اللهِ وَبِحَمْـدِهِ عَدَدَ خَلْـقِه ، وَرِضـا نَفْسِـه ، وَزِنَـةَ عَـرْشِـه ، وَمِـدادَ كَلِمـاتِـه . (ثلاثاً)    [مسلم 4/2090]
Subhanal-lahi wabihamdih, AAadada khalqihi warida nafsih, wazinata AAarshih, wamidada kalimatih.
‘How perfect Allah is and I praise Him by the number of His creation and His pleasure, and by the weight of His throne, and the ink of His words.’(three times)
14- سُبْحـانَ اللهِ وَبِحَمْـدِهِ . (مائة مرة)    [مسلم 4/2071]
Subhanal-lahi wabihamdih.
‘How perfect Allah is and I praise Him.’(one hundred times)
15- يا حَـيُّ يا قَيّـومُ بِـرَحْمَـتِكِ أَسْتَـغـيث ، أَصْلِـحْ لي شَـأْنـي كُلَّـه ، وَلا تَكِلـني إِلى نَفْـسي طَـرْفَةَ عَـين .    [صحيح الترغيب والترهيب 1/273]
Ya hayyu ya qayyoom, birahmatika astagheeth, aslih lee sha/nee kullah, wala takilnee ila nafsee tarfata AAayn.
‘O Ever Living, O Self-Subsisting and Supporter of all, by Your mercy I seek assistance, rectify for me all of my affairs and do not leave me to myself, even for the blink of an eye.’
16- لا إلهَ إلاّ اللّهُ وحْـدَهُ لا شَـريكَ لهُ، لهُ المُـلْكُ ولهُ الحَمْـد، وهُوَ على كُلّ شَيءٍ قَدير . (مائة مرة)    [البخاري 4/95 ومسلم 4/2071]
La ilaha illal-lah, wahdahu la shareeka lah, lahul-mulku walahul-hamd, wahuwa AAala kulli shay-in qadeer.
‘None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner, to Him belongs all sovereignty and praise, and He is over all things omnipotent.’ (one hundred times)
17- أَصْبَـحْـنا وَأَصْبَـحْ المُـلكُ للهِ رَبِّ العـالَمـين ، اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أسْـأَلُـكَ خَـيْرَ هـذا الـيَوْم ، فَـتْحَهُ ، وَنَصْـرَهُ ، وَنـورَهُ وَبَـرَكَتَـهُ ، وَهُـداهُ ، وَأَعـوذُ بِـكَ مِـنْ شَـرِّ ما فـيهِ وَشَـرِّ ما بَعْـدَه .    [أبو داود 4/322]
Asbahna wa-asbahal-mulku lillahi rabbil-AAalameen, allahumma innee as-aluka khayra hathal-yawm, fat-hahu, wanasrahu, wanoorahu, wabarakatahu, wahudahu, wa-aAAoothu bika min sharri ma feehi, washarri ma baAAdah.
‘We have reached the morning and at this very time all sovereignty belongs to Allah, Lord of the worlds. O Allah, I ask You for the good of this day, its triumphs and its victories, its light and its blessings and its guidance, and I take refuge in You from the evil of this day and the evil that follows it.’

Etiquette of Eid

Praise be to Allaah.  
The Sunnahs that the Muslim should observe on the day of Eid are as follows: 
1 – Doing ghusl before going out to the prayer. 
It was narrated in a saheeh hadeeth in al-Muwatta’ and elsewhere that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar used to do ghusl on the day of al-Fitr before going out to the prayer-place in the morning. Al-Muwatta’ 428. 
Al- Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said that the Muslims were unanimously agreed that it is mustahabb to do ghusl for Eid prayer. 
The reason why it is mustahabb is the same reason as that for doing ghusl before Jumu’ah and other public gatherings. Rather on Eid the reason is even stronger. 
2 – Eating before going out to pray on Eid al-Fitr and after the prayer on Eid al-Adha: 
Part of the etiquette is not to go out to pray on Eid al-Fitr until one has eaten some dates, because of the hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari from Anas ibn Maalik, who said that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used not to go out on the morning of Eid al-Fitr until he had eaten some dates… of which he would eat an odd number. Al-Bukhaari, 953. 
It is mustahabb to eat before going out to emphasize the fact that it is forbidden to fast on that day and to demonstrate that the fast has ended. 
Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) suggested that the reason for that was so as to ward off the possibility of adding to the fast, and to hasten to obey the command of Allaah. Al-Fath, 2/446 
Whoever does not have any dates may break his fast with anything that is permissible. 
But on Eid al-Adha it is mustahabb not to eat anything until one comes back from the prayer, so he should eat from the udhiyah if he has offered a sacrifice. If he is not going to offer a sacrifice there is nothing wrong with eating before the prayer. 
3 – Takbeer on the day of Eid 
This is one of the greatest Sunnahs on the day of Eid because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 
“(He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allaah [i.e. to say Takbeer (Allaahu Akbar: Allaah is the Most Great)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him”
[al-Baqarah 2:185] 
It was narrated that al-Waleed ibn Muslim said: I asked al-Awzaa’i and Maalik ibn Anas about saying Takbeer out loud on the two Eids. They said, Yes, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar used to say it out loud on the day of al-Fitr until the imam came out (to lead the prayers). 
It was narrated in a saheeh report that ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sulami said, “They emphasized it more on the day of al-Fitr than the day of al-Adha.”. Wakee’ said, this refers to the takbeer. See Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 3/122/ 
Al-Daaraqutni and others narrated that on the morning of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, Ibn ‘Umar would strive hard in reciting takbeer until he came to the prayer place, then he would recite takbeer until the imam came out. 
Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated with a saheeh isnaad that al-Zuhri said: The people used to recite Takbeer on Eid when they came out of their houses until they came to the prayer place, and until the imam came out. When the imam came out they fell silent, and when he said takbeer they said takbeer. See Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 1/121 
Saying takbeer when coming out of one's house to the prayer place and until the imam came out was something that was well known among the salaf (early generations). This has been narrated by a number of scholars such as Ibn Abi Shaybah, ‘Abd a l-Razzaaq and al-Firyaabi in Ahkaam al-Eidayn from a group of the salaf. For example, Naafi’ ibn Jubayr used to recite takbeer and was astonished that the people did not do so, and he said, “Why do you not recite takbeer?” 
Ibn Shihaab al-Zuhri (may Allaah have mercy on him) used to say, “The people used to recite takbeer from the time they came out of their houses until the imam came in.” 
The time for takbeer on Eid al-Fitr starts from the night before Eid until the imam enters to lead the Eid prayer. 
In the case of Eid al-Adha, the takbeer begins on the first day of Dhu’l-Hijjah and lasts until sunset on the last of the days of tashreeq. 
Description of the takbeer: 
It was narrated in the Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shaybah with a saheeh isnaad from Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he used to recite takbeer during the days of tashreeq: 
Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, wa Allaahu akbar, Allaah akbar, wa Lillaah il-hamd (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is most Great, there is no god but Allaah, Allaah is Most great, Allaah is most great, and to Allaah be praise). 
It was also narrated elsewhere by Ibn Abi Shaybah with the same isnaad, but with the phrase “Allaahu akbar” repeated three times. 
Al-Mahaamili narrated with a saheeh isnaad also from Ibn Mas’ood: “Allaahu akbaru kabeera, Allaahu akbaru kabeera, Allaahu akbar wa ajallu, Allaahu akbar wa Lillaah il-hamd (Allaah is Most Great indeed, Allaah is Most Great indeed, Allaah is most Great and Glorified, Allaah is Most Great and to Allaah be praise).” See al-Irwa’, 3/126. 
4 – Offering congratulations 
The etiquette of Eid also includes the congratulations and good wishes exchanged by people, no matter what the wording, such as saying to one another Taqabbala Allaah minna wa minkum (May Allaah accept (good deeds) from us and from you” or “Eid mubaarak” and other permissible expressions of congratulations. 
It was narrated that Jubayr ibn Nufayr said: When the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) met one another on the day of Eid, they would say to one another, “May Allaah accept (good deeds) from us and from you.” Ibn Hajar said, its isnaad is hasan. Al-Fath, 2/446. 
Offering congratulations was something that was well known among the Sahaabah, and scholars such as Imam Ahmad and others allowed it. There is evidence which suggests that it is prescribed to offer congratulations and good wishes on special occasions, and that the Sahaabah congratulated one another when good things happened, such as when Allaah accepted the repentance of a man, they went and congratulated him for that, and so on. 
Undoubtedly these congratulations are among the noble characteristics among the Muslims. 
The least that may be said concerning the subject of congratulations is that you should return the greetings of those who congratulate you on Eid, and keep quiet if others keep quiet, as Imam Ahmad (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: If anyone congratulates you, then respond, otherwise do not initiate it. 
5 – Adorning oneself on the occasion of Eid. 
It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said that ‘Umar took a brocade cloak that was for sale in the market and brought it to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, buy this and adorn yourself with it for Eid and for receiving the delegations.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to him, “Rather this is the dress of one who has no share (of piety or of reward in the Hereafter)…” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 948. 
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) agreed with ‘Umar on the idea of adorning oneself for Eid, but he denounced him for choosing this cloak because it was made of silk. 
It was narrated that Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had a cloak which he would wear on the two Eids and on Fridays. Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah, 1756, 
Al-Bayhaqi narrated with a saheeh isnaad that Ibn ‘Umar used to wear his best clothes on Eid. 
So a man should wear the best clothes that he has when going out for Eid. 
With regard to women, they should avoid adorning themselves when they go out for Eid, because they are forbidden to show off their adornments to non-mahram men. It is also haraam for a woman who wants to go out to put on perfume or to expose men to temptation, because they are only going out for the purpose of worship. 
6 – Going to the prayer by one route and returning by another. 
It was narrated that Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: On the day of Eid, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to vary his route. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 986. 
It was said that the reason for that was so that the two routes would testify for him on the Day of Resurrection, for the earth will speak on the Day of Resurrection and say what was done on it, both good and bad. 
And it was said that it was in order to manifest the symbols of Islam on both routes, or to manifest the remembrance of Allaah (dhikr), or to annoy the hypocrites and Jews, and to scare them with the large number of people who were with him. And it was said that it was in order to attend to the people’s needs, to answer their questions, teach them, set an example and give charity to the needy, or to visit his relatives and uphold the ties of kinship.
 And Allaah knows best.

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